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Administrative counties of England

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The division into counties is one of the larger divisions of England. Counties are usually divided into several districts, each with its own separate administration (districts may be called Boroughs in some cases). Counties which consist of only one district are more popularly called Unitary Authorities, because they do not match the idea of a county established in the centuries before the 1990s. However, not all unitary authorities are counties.

Table of contents
1 Map: Administrative counties of England (current)
2 List
3 History
4 The future
5 See also
6 External links

Map: Administrative counties of England (current)

Administrative counties of England
Image:EnglandAdminCountiesNumbered.png
  1. Northumberland
  2. Tyne and Wear
  3. Durham
  4. Cumbria
  5. Lancashire
  6. Blackpool *
  7. Blackburn with Darwen *
  8. West Yorkshire
  9. North Yorkshire
  10. Darlington *
  11. Stockton-on-Tees *
  12. Middlesbrough *
  13. Hartlepool *
  14. Redcar and Cleveland *
  15. York *
  16. East Riding of Yorkshire *
  17. Hull *
  18. North Lincolnshire *
  19. North East Lincolnshire *
  20. Lincolnshire
  21. Nottinghamshire
  22. Nottingham *
  23. South Yorkshire
  24. Derbyshire
  25. Derby *
  26. Greater Manchester
  27. Merseyside
  28. Halton *
  1. Warrington *
  2. Cheshire
  3. Shropshire
  4. Telford and Wrekin *
  5. Staffordshire
  6. Stoke-on-Trent *
  7. West Midlands
  8. Warwickshire
  9. Leicestershire
  10. Leicester *
  11. Rutland *
  12. Northamptonshire
  13. Peterborough *
  14. Cambridgeshire
  15. Norfolk
  16. Suffolk
  17. Essex
  18. Southend-on-Sea *
  19. Thurrock *
  20. Hertfordshire
  21. Bedfordshire
  22. Luton *
  23. Milton Keynes *
  24. Buckinghamshire
  25. Oxfordshire
  26. Gloucestershire
  1. Worcestershire
  2. Herefordshire *
  3. South Gloucestershire *
  4. Bristol *
  5. North Somerset *
  6. Bath and North East Somerset *
  7. Wiltshire
  8. Swindon *
  9. Berkshire
  10. Greater London ù
  11. Medway *
  12. Kent
  13. East Sussex
  14. Brighton and Hove *
  15. West Sussex
  16. Surrey
  17. Hampshire
  18. Southampton *
  19. Portsmouth *
  20. Isle of Wight *
  21. Dorset
  22. Poole *
  23. Bournemouth *
  24. Somerset
  25. Devon
  26. Torbay *
  27. Plymouth *
  28. Cornwall

*
unitary authority
metropolitan county
‡ no county council
ù 'administrative area' not a county.

List

Shire counties

A 'shire county' is a non-metropolitan county which has multiple districts. Its name need not have 'shire' in it.

There are 35 such counties

Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Wiltshire, Worcestershire

Of these, all apart from Berkshire also have county councils. Sometimes 'shire county' is used to exclude Berkshire, because it has no county council.

Metropolitan counties

The metropolitan counties are Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands and West Yorkshire.

The county councils of these were abolished in 1986 by the Thatcher government for largely political rather than practical reasons, but they still exist legally. They are used for some administrative and geographic purposes, and are still ceremonial counties also. Most of the powers that they used to have have devolved to their metropolitan boroughs, which are now in effect unitary authorities, however some functions such as emergency services, civil defence, and public transport are still run jointly on a metropolitan county wide basis.

Greater London is not formally a county but an 'administrative area'. It was created in 1965 and its Greater London Council abolished in 1986 along with the metropolitan county councils. It now has a Greater London Authority in its capacity as a region of England.

Unitary authorities

Unitary authorities are areas with only one council. 40 of these are coterminous with a county.

Bath and North East Somerset, Blackburn with Darwen, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Brighton and Hove, Bristol, Derby, Darlington, East Riding of Yorkshire, Halton, Hartlepool, Herefordshire, Isle of Wight, Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, Luton, Medway Towns, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Poole, Portsmouth, Redcar and Cleveland, Rutland, Southampton, Southend-on-Sea, South Gloucestershire, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon, Telford and Wrekin, Thurrock, Torbay, Warrington, York

For 39 of these, they are defined as a county with a single district, which has a district council, and no county council. For the Isle of Wight, technically it is a county with a county council and no district councils, but the effect is the same.

The districts of Berkshire are unitary authorities, but are not granted county status.

The Isles of Scilly are not part of Cornwall for administrative purposes, but neither do they constitute a county.

See Subdivisions of England for the full list of unitary authorities.

History

See traditional counties of England for the history of the English counties before 1888.

1888 : County Councils

In 1888 the government, led by the Tory Prime Minister Lord Salisbury established county councils for all of England and Wales, covering areas known as administrative counties. Excluded from administrative counties were the county boroughs, which were what today are known as unitary authorities.

Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Suffolk, Sussex, and Yorkshire were split up for administrative purposes, following historical divisions used by the Courts of Quarter Sessions.

Additionally there was a County of London which covered the area today known as Inner London. The Isle of Wight was originally included under the administrative county of Hampshire but obtained its own county council in 1890.

Some exclaves that had been left untouched by the 1844 Act were affected by this one, for example the Measham area of Derbyshire was placed under the control of Leicestershire County Council.

In 1894 a uniform two-tier system was established, with subdivisions of the administrative counties called urban districts, rural districts and municipal boroughs.

Map: Counties of England from 1890-1965

This map follows the usual practice of not showing county boroughs. Instead, they were included in the county. When a county borough expanded into territory of a county that wasn't the one it came from, maps often showed this as an increase in size of the county the county borough was associated with. So, for example, Bristol south of the River Avon would be shown as part of Gloucestershire rather than Somerset.

This system was the basis of the ceremonial counties used for Lieutenancy - except that Cambridgeshire, Hampshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Suffolk and Sussex were not split for Lieutenancy. (Yorkshire, however, was).

Counties of England from 1890-1965
  1. Northumberland
  2. Durham
  3. Westmorland
  4. Cumberland
  5. Lancashire
  6. West Riding of Yorkshire
  7. North Riding of Yorkshire
  8. East Riding of Yorkshire
  9. Lindsey
  10. Holland
  11. Kesteven
  12. Nottinghamshire
  13. Derbyshire
  14. Cheshire
  15. Salop (Shropshire)
  16. Staffordshire
  17. Warwickshire
  18. Leicestershire
  19. Rutland
  20. Northamptonshire
  21. Soke of Peterborough
  22. Huntingdonshire
  23. Cambridgeshire
  24. Isle of Ely
  1. Norfolk
  2. East Suffolk
  3. West Suffolk
  4. Essex
  5. Hertfordshire
  6. Bedfordshire
  7. Buckinghamshire
  8. Oxfordshire
  9. Gloucestershire
  10. Worcestershire
  11. Herefordshire
  12. Wiltshire
  13. Berkshire
  14. Middlesex
  15. London
  16. Kent
  17. East Sussex
  18. West Sussex
  19. Surrey
  20. Hampshire
  21. Isle of Wight
  22. Dorset
  23. Somerset
  24. Devon
  25. Cornwall
Image:EnglandNumbered1890.png

Encroachment

As urbanisation increased, and suburbs were built on a scale not seen before, the urban areas surrounding various towns and cities started to cross traditional county borders. Since boroughs, urban districts, and parishes could no longer cross county boundaries, the county borders were adjusted

Examples of these include

1965 : Greater London

Throughout the next century, debates took place about what should be done about local government in respect of the increasing urbanisation of the country. Proposals to expand or change county boroughs or to create larger urban counties were discussed, but nothing happened until 1963, when legislation was passed to come into effect in 1965.

The County of London was expanded and renamed Greater London, and consumed nearly all of Middlesex - the remaining parts being ceded to Surrey and Hertfordshire. Some other changes took place, such as the Soke of Peterborough and Huntingdonshire being merged into Huntingdon and Peterborough, and the merger of the original Cambridgeshire county council and the Isle of Ely County Council.

Map: Counties of England from 1965-1974

Counties of England from 1965-1974
  1. Northumberland
  2. Durham
  3. Westmorland
  4. Cumberland
  5. Lancashire
  6. West Riding of Yorkshire
  7. North Riding of Yorkshire
  8. East Riding of Yorkshire
  9. Lindsey
  10. Holland
  11. Kesteven
  12. Nottinghamshire
  13. Derbyshire
  14. Cheshire
  15. Salop (Shropshire)
  16. Staffordshire
  17. Warwickshire
  18. Leicestershire
  19. Rutland
  20. Northamptonshire
  21. Huntingdon and Peterborough
  1. Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely
  2. Norfolk
  3. East Suffolk
  4. West Suffolk
  5. Essex
  6. Hertfordshire
  7. Bedfordshire
  8. Buckinghamshire
  9. Oxfordshire
  10. Gloucestershire
  11. Worcestershire
  12. Herefordshire
  13. Wiltshire
  14. Berkshire
  15. Greater London
  16. Kent
  17. East Sussex
  18. West Sussex
  19. Surrey
  20. Hampshire
  21. Isle of Wight
  22. Dorset
  23. Somerset
  24. Devon
  25. Cornwall
Image:EnglandNumbered1965.png

1974 : Two-tier

Main article: Local Government Act 1972

By the late 1960s, it had become obvious that the structure of local government in England and Wales needed reforming. Harold Wilson's Labour government set up the Redcliffe-Maud Commission to produce proposals for wholesale reform.

The report proposed that most of England the two-tier structure be abolished, and replaced with a system of 58 unitary authories, which would generally ignore the previous administrative boundaries in favour of changes that made geographic sense - a total redrawing of the map. In the metropolitan areas of Merseyside, South East Lancashire and North East Cheshire, and the Birmingham area, there would be 3 metropolitan areas, with 20 district authorities.

These proposals were opposed by the Conservative Party opposition led by Edward Heath. They won the 1970 general election, and set to work defining their own scheme. This scrapped the concept of unitary authorities (even for existing county boroughs) — the entire area of England and Wales was to be divided into uniform counties and districts. In England the counties were to be largely modelled on the existing counties, but in some areas (quite apart from the metropolitan areas) quite radical reforms were put forward.

Despite reassurances from the government that nobody's loyalties were expected to change as a result of the local government reform, and that the ancient and geographic counties would not be formally abolished; many changes did incur significant local oppositions. Most of the radical changes were withdrawn. One aspect the government stood firm on was the mergers of small counties. Campaigns for the continuation of Rutland and Herefordshire were unsuccessful, although due to its special geographic circumstances, the Isle of Wight was permitted to retain a separate county council, as opposed to being reunified with its historic county of Hampshire.

The Local Government Act was passed in 1972, and defined the English counties and metropolitan districts, but not the non-metropolitan districts. These were set by a Boundary Commission that had already begun work.

The metropolitan counties were composed as follows

Other significant changes were -

Map: Counties of England from 1974-1995

Counties of England from 1974-1996
  1. Northumberland
  2. Tyne and Wear
  3. County Durham
  4. Cleveland
  5. North Yorkshire
  6. Cumbria
  7. Lancashire
  8. Merseyside
  9. Greater Manchester
  10. West Yorkshire
  11. South Yorkshire
  12. Humberside
  13. Lincolnshire
  14. Nottinghamshire
  15. Derbyshire
  16. Cheshire
  17. Shropshire
  18. Staffordshire
  19. West Midlands
  20. Warwickshire
  21. Leicestershire
  22. Northamptonshire
  23. Cambridgeshire
  1. Norfolk
  2. Suffolk
  3. Essex
  4. Hertfordshire
  5. Bedfordshire
  6. Buckinghamshire
  7. Oxfordshire
  8. Gloucestershire
  9. Hereford and Worcester
  10. Avon
  11. Wiltshire
  12. Berkshire
  13. Greater London
  14. Kent
  15. East Sussex
  16. West Sussex
  17. Surrey
  18. Hampshire
  19. Isle of Wight
  20. Dorset
  21. Somerset
  22. Devon
  23. Cornwall
Image:EnglandCounties1974.png

1986 : Break-up of Metropolises

In 1986 the county councils of the metropolitan counties were abolished by Margaret Thatcher's government following disputes with central government, but the counties themselves remained legally in existence.

1995-1998 : Unitary Authorities

[[April 1
,
1996 to April 1, 1997]]
[[April 1
, 1997 to April 1, 1998]]
[[April 1
, 1998 onwards]]
Main article: 1990s UK local government reform

The 1990s led to the restoration of county boroughs under a new name, unitary authorities, which radically changed the administrative map of England. The changes were carried out in several waves.

On April 1, 1995, the Isle of Wight became a single unitary authority. It had previously had a two-tier structure with an Isle of Wight County Council; and a Medina Borough Council and a South Wight Borough Council. Also on this day, two small areas were ceded from Surrey and Buckinghamshire to Berkshire, giving it a border with Greater London.

On April 1, 1996, the unpopular counties of Avon, Humberside and Cleveland were abolished and their districts turned into unitary authorities. Also at this time, the City of York was expanded and separated from North Yorkshire.

On April 1, 1997, the districts of Bournemouth, Darlington, Derby, Leicester, Luton, Milton Keynes, Poole, Portsmouth, Rutland and Southampton became unitary authorities. Also, the districts of Brighton and Hove were merged to form the new unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.

On April 1, 1998, Blackpool, Blackburn with Darwen, Halton, Medway, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Swindon, Stoke-on-Trent, Southend-on-Sea, Telford and Wrekin, Torbay, Thurrock and Warrington became unitary authorities. Also, Hereford and Worcester was abolished and replaced by the unitary authority of Herefordshire and the shire county of Worcestershire. Berkshire was split into six unitary authorities, but not formally abolished.

2000 : London

The incoming Labour government under the leadership of Tony Blair had made it a campaign pledge to establish some form of local government for all London, whilst being keen to stress that it was not going to be a resurrection of the Greater London Council. The Greater London Authority has an elected Mayor and an Assembly with scrutinizing powers.

The future

The Boundary Committee for England recently undertook a local government review in Cheshire, County Durham, Lancashire & Cumbria, North Yorkshire and Northumberland, and recommended patterns of unitary governance to be introduced if elected regional assemblies are introduced. See Subdivisions_of_England#Proposed_changes for more details. The proposals could have a quite limited effect on administrative counties, as there is no need to abolish a county if it is to be made entirely unitary.

See also

External links