The Capital of China reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
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Capital of China

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Numerous cities have been the capital of China during the course of history.

State of Yan in Spring and Autumn Period: called Ji (薊 Jì)

Liao Dynasty, as a secondary capital: called Yanjing (燕京 Yānjīng "capital of Yan")

Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) from Jin Shi Zong until 1220s (1217?): called Zhongdu (中都 Zhōngdū "central capital")

Yuan Dynasty: called Dadu (大都 Dàdū "great capital")

Ming Dynasty since Yongle Emperor of China: called Jingshi (京師 Jīngshī "capital")

Qing Dynasty since the fall of Ming in 1644.

the current capital of the People's Republic of China

Western Han Dynasty, from 206 BC to AD 9.

Western Wei Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty

Sui Dynasty

Tang Dynasty

The Wu Yue Kingdom (904-978), during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period

China during the Southern Song: called Lin'an (临安 Lín'ān)

Later Liang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Later Jin Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Later Han Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Later Zhou Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Northern Song Dynasty: called Dongjing (东京 Dōngjīng)

Eastern Zhou Dynasty

Eastern Han Dynasty from 25 to 220.

Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms.

Western Jin Dynasty

Northern Wei Dynasty since 493, moved its capital from Datong.

Later Tang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

all of the Six Dynasties: called Jianye (建业 Jiànyè) or Jiankang (建康 Jiànkāng). The Six Dynasties are:

Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms

Eastern Jin Dynasty

Song Dynasty

Qi Dynasty,

Liang Dynasty

Chen Dynasty

Ming Dynasty before Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing.

Republic of China after the Northern Expedition until the Japanese invasion in 1937 of WWII, and after the war until Chiang Kai-Shek retreated to Taiwan in 1949. (It is still the "official" ROC capital.)

collaborationist government of Wang Jingwei

The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (中国四大古都 pinyin Zhōngguó Sì Dà Gǔdū) refers to Nanjing, Beijing, Xi'an, and Luoyang.

See also: Capitals of subnational entities of China