Carl RogersJanuary 8, 1902 - February 4, 1987) was a psychologist who was instrumental in the development of non-directive psychotherapy (Rogerian psychotherapy). His basic tenets were unconditional love, a positive client-counselor relationship, and that the client could solve their own problems by talking about them with someone else.
Born in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was an engineer, his mother a housewife and devoted Christian. Following an education in an strict, religious and ethical environment, he became a rather isolated, independent and disciplined person, and acquired a knowledge and an appreciation for the scientific method in a practical world. His first career choice was agriculture, followed by religion. At age 20, following his 1922 trip to Beijing for an international Christian conference, he started to doubt his religious convictions; to help him clarify his career choice, he attended to a seminar entitled 'Why am I entering the ministry?', after which he decided to change career.
He signed-up to the psychology program in Chicago, and obtained his Ph.D. in 1931. He taught and practiced at Ohio State (1940), the University of Chicago (1945) and the University of Wisconsin (1957). However, following several internal conflicts at the department of psychology of Wisconsin, Rogers became disillusioned with academica. He received an offer at La Jolla for research, where he remained, doing therapy, speeches and writing until his sudden death.
Rogers' idea of the 'fully functioning person' involved the following qualities, which show marked similarities to Buddhist thinking.
- Openness to experience
:The accurate perception of one's feelings and experience in the world.
- Existential living
:Living in the present, rather than the past (gone) or the future (yet to come).
- Organismic trusting
:Trusting one's own thoughts and feelings as accurate. Do what comes naturally.
- Experiential freedom
:To acknowledge one's freedoms and take responsibility for one's own actions.
:Full participation in the world, including contributing to others' lives.
Carl Rogers and some colleagues are also the founders of "Group Encounter" (for young people, managers etc.) and of Marriage Encounter (ME).