# Classical physics

**Classical physics**is physics excluding quantum theory and occasionally excluding relativity as well. Roughly taken, the scale of classical physics is the level of isolated atoms and molecules on upwards, including the macroscopic and astronomical realm. Inside the atom, and among atoms in a molecule, the laws of classical physics break down and generally do not provide a correct description. Moreover, the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation is somewhat limited in its ability to provide correct descriptions, since light is inherently a quantum phenomenon. Unlike quantum physics, classical physics is generally characterized by the principle of complete determinism.

A *physical system on the classical level* is a physical system in which the laws of classical physics are valid.

Among the branches of theory included in classical physics are:

- Classical mechanics
- Newton's laws of motion
- Classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms

- Classical electrodynamics (Maxwell's Equations)
- Classical thermodynamics
- Special theory of relativity and General theory of relativity
- Classical chaos theory and nonlinear dynamics

The current paradigm of physics is that the fundamental laws of nature are the laws of quantum physics, and that classical theory is the by-product of quantum rules applies to the macroscopic realm. At present, this conjecture is more easily assumed than proven, however, and one of the most vigorous on-going fields of research in physics is classical-quantum correspondence. This field of research is concerned with which is concerned with the discovery of how the laws of quantum physics give rise to classical physics in the limit of the large scales of the classical level.