Estimates of the date of Creationtraditional beliefs that the Earth, or indeed the entire Universe, was brought into being in a grand Creation event by one or more gods. Once these cultures developed calendars, many began to ponder the question of precisely how long ago it was that this event happened. This article discusses some attempts to estimate the date of Creation.
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2 Date of Creation according to Hindu Scripture
3 Date of Creation according to the Mayan calendar
4 Date of Creation according to modern astrophysics
5 External links
Dating the Biblical Creation
The Bible begins with the Book of Genesis, in which God creates the world, including the first human, a man named Adam, in a period of six days. Genesis goes on to list many of Adam's descendants, in many cases giving the ages at which they had children and died. By interpreting these ages literally, and adding them up, it is possible to build up a chronology, in which many of the events of the Old Testament are dated to an estimated number of years after the Creation.
Some scholars have gone further, and have attempted to tie in this Biblical chronology with that of recorded history, thus establishing a date for the Creation in a modern calendar. Since there are periods in the Biblical story where dates are not given, the chronology has been subject to interpretation in many different ways, resulting in a variety of estimates of the date of Creation.
Jewish scholars give two dates for Creation according to the Talmud. They state that the first day of Creation week was either Elul 25, AM 1 or Adar 25, AM 1, almost twelve or six months, respectively, after the modern epoch of the Hebrew calendar. Most prefer Elul 25 whereas a few prefer Adar 25. These place the sixth day of Creation week, when Adam was created, on the first day of the following month, either Tishri or Nisan, the first month of either the civil or biblical year, respectively. In both cases, the epoch of the modern calendar was called the molad tohu or mean new moon of chaos, because it occurred before Creation. This epoch was Tishri 1, AM 1 or October 7, 3761 BCE, the latter being the corresponding tabular date (same daylight period) in the proleptic Julian calendar. Thus the majority place the first day of Creation week on September 25, 3760 BCE, while a minority place it on March 29, 3760 BCE, both in the proleptic Julian calendar.
One of the best known estimates in modern times is that of Bishop James Ussher (1581–1656), who proposed a date of Sunday, October 23, 4004 BC, in the Julian calendar. It is a common belief that he also gave an exact time of Creation, but this is not found in Ussher's work . Andrew D. White, in his book A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, attributes the following statement to Dr. John Lightfoot (1602–1675), Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, who was a contemporary of Ussher, but who published his own calculations before Ussher's were completed:
- "[T]his work took place and man was created by the Trinity on October 23, 4004 B.C., at nine o'clock in the morning."
- Edgar Frank, Talmudic and Rabbinical Chronology (New York, 1956)
- J. Ussher, The Annals of the World iv (1658)
Date of Creation according to Hindu ScriptureAccording to Hindu scripture, the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, existence in four yugas (ages) totalling exactly 4,320,000 years, and dissolution. The current universe is believed to have been created around the 3889th millennium BC and is expected to dissolve during the 431st millennium AD.
Date of Creation according to the Mayan calendar
The Mayan calendar dates the creation of the Earth to August 11 or August 13, 3114 BC (establishing that date as first day of the Long Count 0.0.0.0.0).
Date of Creation according to modern astrophysics
According to the Big Bang theory, our universe came into being from a gravitational singularity 13.7 ñ 0.2 billion years ago. Those who hold to the hybrid theory of creative evolution view this as the beginning of the Creation event. Atheists who hold to the Big Bang theory see this as the moment when the universe originated, but it is not proper to say that they date creation here, for in the atheistic view this is not a creation event, as the word creation implies a creator, but merely a moment at which natural processes brought the universe into being.