He was born in Tokyo, on January 23, 1907. In 1929, he became a lecturer at Kyoto Imperial University in his 22 after graduated from there. Since graduation, he had been doing research about theoretical physics, particularly in the theory of elementary particles. In 1932, he got married with Sumiko and had two sons, Harumi and Takaaki. In 1933 he became a professor and an assistant professor at Osaka University, at age 26.
In 1935 he published his theory of mesons, which explained the interaction between protons and neutrons, and was a major influence on research into elementary particles. In 1940 he became a professor in Kyoto University. In 1940 he won the Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy, in 1943 the Decoration of Cultural Merit from the Japanese government. In 1949 he became a professor at Columbia University. In 1949 he won the Nobel prize for physics.
In 1953 he became the first chairman at Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics  An honorary doctorate of the University of Paris and honorary memberships of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Indian Academy of Sciences, the International Academy of Philosophy and Sciences, and the Pontificia Academia Scientiarum are granted to him for acknowledgement in science.
He had been an editor at Progress of Theoretical Physics since 1946. He had published many scientific papers and lecture notes, including Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (1946) and Introduction to the Theory of Elementary Particles (1948), both in Japanese.