The Longbow reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
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Longbow

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The longbow was a kind of bow used in the Middle Ages both for hunting and as a weapon of war and reached its zenith of perfection as a weapon in the hands of English and Welsh archers.

The longbow was first recorded as being used by the Welsh in 633 A.D., when Offrid, the son of Edwin, king of Northumbria, was killed by an arrow shot from a Welsh longbow during a battle between the Welsh and the Mercians -- more than five centuries before any record of its military use in England.

The Anglo-Norman invasions of Wales were to provide further encounters with the longbow. Welsh bowmen took a heavy toll on the invaders by using this extraordinary weapon of war. The English were quick to realise the impact that the longbow could produce on the battlefield. As soon as the Welsh campaign was successfully over, Welsh conscripts began to be incorporated in to the English army. The lessons the English learned through their experiences in Wales were going to be put in practise with deadly effect on their enemies on the battlefield of France and Scotland.

Longbows were difficult to master because the draw-weight often exceeded 490 newtons (50 kg). Considerable practice was required to produce the swift and effective fire combat required. Skeletons of longbow archers are recognizably deformed, with enlarged left arms, and often bone spurs on left wrists, left shoulders and right fingers.

The longbow decided a number of medieval battles fought by the English, the most significant of which being the Battle of Crecy and later the Battle of Agincourt during the Hundred Years' War. A variant (bow-staves) was used by 14th century mercenary troops of Sir John Hawkwood. Longbows were used until around the 16th century, when gunpowder began to be used, and such units as arquebusiers and grenadiers began appearing.

Because a longbow is a long-range weapon, the bowmen were rather defenseless at close ranges (where units such as knights were more effective). So, they usually put physical barricades, such as stakes and poles driven in the ground, to attempt to mire the enemy forces (namely, cavalry and infantry), so they could systematically destroy them. Also, because they had an advantage over the slower-shooting, closer-ranged crossbowmen and traditional archers, they were generally the main core of the long-range infantry troops of any military force that used them.

The main formation used was generally this:

A skillful general would alternate flights of arrows with cavalry charges, sometimes alternating flank attacks to induce shock and fear in the enemy. The arrows were used as mass bombardment, not as sniper weapons until the enemy got quite close.

To penetrate light armor, war arrows had "chisel" (or bodkin) heads, not hunting broad-heads. In peace-time, in some regions, carrying chisel points was a hanging offense, because it was thought to threaten noblemen, or they were taken as evidence that one was a highwayman.

The importance of the longbow in medieval English culture can be seen in the legends of Robin Hood and in the "Song of the Bow," a poem from The White Company by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

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