The Mercury (planet) reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
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Mercury (planet)

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Mercury
Mercury

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Orbital characteristics
Avg Dist from the Sun AU
Mean radius 57,910,000 km
Eccentricity 0.20563069
Orbital period 87.968435 days
(0.2408445 yearss)
Synodic period 115.88 days
Avg. Orbital Speed 47.8725 km/s
Inclination 7.004°
satellites 0
Physical characteristics
Equatorial diameter 4879.4 km
Surface area 7.5 × 107 km²
Mass 23 kilogram>kg
Mean density 5.43 g/cm³
Equatorial gravity m/s²
0.376gee
Rotation period 58 d 15.5088 h
Axial tilt
Albedo 0.10-0.12
Escape velocity 4.25 km/s
temp: Day 623 K
temp: Night 103 K
temp
min mean max
K 440 K 700 K
Atmospheric characteristics
Atmospheric pressure trace
Potassium 31.7%
Sodium 24.9%
Atomic Oxygen 9.5%
Argon 7.0%
Helium 5.9%
Molecular Oxygen 5.6%
Nitrogen 5.2%
Carbon dioxide 3.6%
Water 3.4%
Hydrogen 3.2%
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, and the second-smallest planet in the solar system. Mercury ranges from –0.4 to 5.5 in apparent magnitude; Mercury is sufficiently "close" to the Sun that telescopes rarely examine it. Mercury has no natural satellites. The only spacecraft to approach Mercury was Mariner 10 (197475); only 40–45% of the planet has been mapped.

The planet was named after the Roman god Mercury. The astronomical symbol for Mercury is a circle on top of a short vertical line with a cross below and a semicircle above the circle (Unicode: ☿). Before the 5th century BCE, the planet Mercury actually had two names, as it was not realized it could alternately appear on one side of the Sun and then the other. Mercury was called Mercury when in the evening sky, but was known as Apollo—in honor of the Roman god of the Sun when it appeared in the morning. Pythagoras is credited for pointing out that they were one and the same.

Table of contents
1 Physical characteristics
2 Exploration of Mercury
3 See also
4 References
5 External links

Physical characteristics

Atmosphere

Mercury has only trace amounts of an atmosphere. The atmosphere of Mercury is extremely thin; indeed, gas molecules in Mercury's atmosphere collide with the surface of the planet more frequently than they collide with each other; for most purposes Mercury should be considered as being airless. The "atmosphere" is primarily composed of oxygen, potassium, and sodium.

The atoms that compose Mercury's atmosphere are continually being lost to space, with the average "lifespan" of a potassium or sodium atom being approximately ~3 hours (during the Mercurian day—and only half that at perihelion). The lost atmosphere is continually replenished by several mechanisms; solar wind captured by the planetary magnetic field, vapor produced by micrometeor impacts, direct thermal evaporation of the polar ice, and/or outgassing.

Temperature and sunlight

The mean surface temperature of Mercury is 452K, but it ranges from 90–700K; by comparison, the temperature on Earth varies by only ~11K (with respect only to solar radiation; not climate or season). The sunlight on Mercury's surface is 8.9 times more intense than that on Earth, a total irradiance of 9126.6 W/m².

Terrain

Mercury's cratered surface appears very similar to the Moon. Mercury's most distinctive surface feature (of what has been photographed) is Caloris Basin, a impact crater ~1350km in diameter. The planet is marked with scarps, which apparently formed billions of years ago as Mercury's core cooled and shrank causing the crust to wrinkle. The majority of Mercury's surface is covered with plains of two distinct ages; the younger plains are less heavily cratered and probably formed when lava flows buried earlier terrain. In addition, Mercury has "significant" tidal bulges.

Mercury's terrain features are officially listed as the following:


Interior composition

The planet has a relatively large iron core (even when compared to Earth). Mercury's composition is approximately 70% metallic and 30% silicate. The average density is 5430 kg/m³; which is slightly less than Earth's density. The reason that Mercury, with so much iron, has less density than Earth is that the overall mass of Earth compresses the planet and creates a high density. Mercury only has 5.5% of Earth's mass. The iron core fills 42% of the planetary volume (Earth's core only fills 17%). Surrounding the core is a 600km mantle.

Mercurian rotation

At certain points on Mercury's surface, an observer (standing upon one of the tidal bulges) would be able to see the Sun rise about halfway, then reverse and set, then rise again; all within the same Mercurian day. This is because approximately four days prior to perihelion, Mercury's orbital velocity exactly equals its rotational velocity; such that the Sun's apparent motion ceases; and, at perihelion, Mercury's orbital velocity exceeds the rotational velocity; thus, the Sun appears to retrograde. Four days after perihelion, the Sun's normal apparent motion resumes.

Until radar observations in 1965 proved otherwise it was thought that Mercury was tidally locked with the Sun, rotating once for each orbit and keeping the same face directed towards the Sun at all times. Instead, Mercury has a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, rotating three times for every two revolutions around the Sun; the eccentricity of Mercury's orbit makes this resonance stable. The original reason astronomers thought it was tidally locked was because whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always at the same point in its 3:2 resonance, so showing the same face, which would be also the case if it was totally locked. Mercury rotates 59 times slower than Earth.

Because of Mercury's 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, although a sidereal day (the period of rotation) lasts ~58.7 Earth days, a solar day (the length between two meridian transitss of the Sun) lasts ~176 Earth days.

Mercurian orbit

The orbit of Mercury is eccentric, ranging from 46M–70Mkm in radius. The slow precession of this orbit around the sun could not be completely explained by Newtonian Classical Mechanics, and for some time it was thought that another planet might be present in an orbit even closer to the sun (sometimes referred to as Vulcan) to account for this perturbation. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity provided the explanation for this small discrepancy instead, however.

Research indicates that the eccentricity of Mercury's orbit varies chaotically from 0 (circular) to a very high 0.45 over millions of years. [Nature, June 24 2004] This is though to explain Mercury's 3:2 spin-orbit resonance (rather than 1:1), since this state is more likely to arise during a period of high eccentricity.

The Mercurian magnetosphere

Despite its slow rotation, Mercury has a relatively strong magnetosphere, with 1% of the magnetic field strength generated by Earth. It is possible that this magnetic field is generated in a manner similar to Earth's, by a dynamo of circulating liquid core material; current estimates suggest that Mercury's core is not hot enough to liquefy nickel-iron, but it is possible that materials with a lower melting point such as sulfur may be responsible. It is also possible that Mercury's magnetic field is a remnant of an earlier dynamo effect that has now ceased, the magnetic field becoming "frozen" in solidified magnetic materials.

Why Mercury has so much iron

Mercury has a higher iron percentage than any other object within the system. Several theories have been proposed to explain Mercury's high metallicity.

One theory suggests that Mercury originally had a metal-silicate ratio similar to common chondrite meteors and a mass approximately 2.25 times its current mass, but that early in the solar system's history Mercury was struck by a planetesimal of approximately 1/6 that mass. The impact would have stripped away much of the original crust and mantle; leaving the core behind. A similar theory has been proposed to explain the formation of Earth's Moon, see giant impact theory. Alternately, Mercury may have formed very early in the history of the solar nebula, before the Sun's energy output had stabilized. Mercury starts out with approximately twice its current mass in this theory; but, as the protostar contracted, temperatures near Mercury could have been between 2500–3500 K; and possibly even as high as 10000 K. Much of Mercury's surface rock would have vaporized at such temperatures, forming an atmosphere of "rock vapor" which would have been carried away by the nebular wind. A third theory, similar to the second, argues that the outer layers of Mercury were "eroded" by the solar wind over a longer period of time.

Ice on Mercury

Radar observations taken in 1992 indicated that there is frozen water ice at Mercury's north pole. Such water is believed to exist at the bottom of permanently shaded craters, where it has been deposited by comet impacts and/or gases arising from the planetary interior.

Exploration of Mercury

Early Astronomers

Mercury has been known since at least the time of the Sumerians (3rd millennium BC), who called it Ubu-idim-gud-ud. The earliest recorded detailed observations were made by the Babylonians, who called it gu-ad or gu-utu. It was given two names by the ancient Greeks, Apollo when visible in the morning sky and Hermes when visible in the evening, but Greek astronomers knew that the two names referred to the same body. Heraclitus even believed that Mercury and Venus orbited the Sun, not the Earth. Observation of Mercury is severely complicated by its proximity to the Sun; it is only visible from Earth at sunrise or sunset.

NASA

The only spacecraft to approach Mercury has been Mariner 10 (197475). A mission to Mercury has been approved by NASA, named MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging), which is planned to launch on August 2, 2004 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, USA. The MESSENGER spacecraft will make three flybys of Mercury in 2008 and 2009 before entering a year-long orbit of Mercury in March 2011.

Japan and the ESA

Japan is planning a joint mission with the European Space Agency called BepiColombo that will orbit Mercury with two probes, one to map the planet, and the other to study its magnetosphere. An original plan to include a lander has been shelved. Russian Soyuz rockets will launch the probes, starting in 201112. The probes will reach Mercury about four years later, orbiting and charting its surface and magnetosphere for a year.

Potential for human colonization

A crater at the North pole or South pole of Mercury may be one of the best off-Earth locations for a colony as the temperature is a constant minus 200 degrees c or there abouts. This is because Mercury has zero axial tilt and esentially no atmosphere to carry heat from the sunlit portion of Mercury. It is always dark at the bottom of even a shallow crator at the pole of Mercury. The human activities will warm the colony to a comfortable temperature, while the low ambient temperature makes waste heat disposal easier than most locations off Earth.

The large iron core of Mercury will protect the colonists from a nearby super nova in almost half of the possible directions. The colonists at Mercury's pole might be the only human survivors in our Solar System.

See also

References

External links


The Solar System
Sun | Mercury | Venus | Earth | Moon | Mars | Asteroids | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | Pluto
(For other objects and regions, see: List of solar system objects, Astronomical objects)