Mineralogyearth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Studies also include the processes of mineral creation and destruction.
The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an organization whose members are organizations representing mineralogists in individual countries. Its activities include managing naming of minerals (via the Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names), location of Type material of known minerals, etc.
As of 2004 there are over 4000 species of mineral recognized by the IMA. Of these, perhaps 150 can be called "common," another 50 are "occasional," and the rest are "rare" to "extremely rare."