- For alternative meanings, see nature (disambiguation).
The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Image Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF team
Nature (also called the material world, the material universe, the natural world, and the natural universe) is all matter and energy, especially in its essential form, untainted by human influence. Nature is the subject of scientific study.
In scale, 'nature' includes everything from the universal to the subatomic. This includes all things animal, plant, and mineral; all natural resources and events (hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes). It also includes the behaviour of living animals, and the processes associated with inanimate objects. A fundamental difference of view exists between those who include humans (both their consciousness and their activities) within nature, and those who do not.
|Table of contents|
4 Matter and force
6 The supernatural
8 The natural and the artificial
9 Related concepts
11 See also
12 External links
Nature outside Earth and its atmosphere
Events and phenomenon outside Earth and its atmosphere are in the natural science of astronomy.
Life, the characteristics and behaviors of organisms, how species and individuals come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with their environment are all in the natural science of biology.
The structure, properties, composition, and reactions of chemical elements and compounds are part of the natural science of chemistry.
Matter and force
The behaviour and interactions of matter and force are a part of the natural science of physics.
Some people believe in the existence of a non-material world in a sense beyond that of just mental experience. They rather believe in supernatural beings and in a supernatural reality absolutely different in kind to that of the natural world. Even if such a reality exists, many scientists and other assert that it is beyond the reach of science. On the other hand science has been very successful in bringing apparently inexplicable and supposedly supernatural phenomena within its scope.
In philosophy, the view that the material world of atoms, animals, gravity, stars, wind, microbes, etc., actually exist independently of our observations of them is termed realism; the opposing view is called idealism.
The natural and the artificial
A distinction is often drawn between the "natural" and the "artificial" (="man-made"). Can such a distinction be justified? One approach is to exclude mind from the realm of the natural; another is to exclude not only mind, but also humans and their influence. In either case, the boundary between the natural and the artificial is a difficult one to draw (see mind-body problem). Some people believe that the problem is best avoided by saying that everything is natural, but that does little to clarify the concept of the "artificial". In any event, ambiguities about the distinction between the natural and the artificial animate much of art, literature and philosophy.
In education and related areas, the contrast "natural/artificial" can appear as " nature/nurture".