The Nobel Prize in Chemistry reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
(provided by Fixed Reference: snapshots of Wikipedia from wikipedia.org)

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Support a children's charity online
Winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, listed by year of award in ascending order.

1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions
1902
Hermann Emil Fischer
for his work on sugar and purine syntheses
1903
Svante August Arrhenius
for his electrolytic theory of dissociation (see ion)
1904
Sir William Ramsay
for his discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air
1905
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer
for his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds
1906
Henri Moissan
for his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the electric furnace called after him
1907
Eduard Buchner
for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation
1908
Ernest Rutherford
for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances
1909
Wilhelm Ostwald
his work on catalysis and for his investigations into chemical equilibria and rates of reaction
1910
Otto Wallach
for his work in the field of alicyclic compounds
1911
Marie Sklodowska-Curie
for her discovery of radium and polonium, and her study of radium
1912
Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier
for his the discovery of the Grignard reagent and for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds
1913
Alfred Werner
for his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules
1914
Theodore William Richards
for his determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of elements
1915
Richard Martin Willstätter
for his researches on plant pigments
1918
Fritz Haber
for his synthesis of ammonia
1920
Walther Hermann Nernst
for his work in thermochemistry
1921
Frederick Soddy
for his work on the chemistry of radioactive substances and investigations into isotopes
1922
Francis William Aston
for his discovery of isotopes in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his whole-number rule
1923
Fritz Pregl
for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances
1925
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and the methods used
1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg
for his work on disperse systems
1927
Heinrich Otto Wieland
for his investigations of the bile acids and related substances
1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
for his research into sterols and their connection with vitamins
1929
Arthur Harden, Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes
1930
Hans Fischer
for his researches into haemin and chlorophyll
1931
Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius
for their contributions to chemical high pressure methods
1932
Irving Langmuir
for his work in surface chemistry
1934
Harold Clayton Urey
for his discovery of heavy hydrogen
1935
Frédéric Joliot, Irene Joliot-Curie
for their synthesis of new radioactive elements
1936
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
for his work on molecular structure through investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases
1937
Walter Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer
for his work on carbohydrates and vitamin C and for his work on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2
1938
Richard Kuhn
for his work on carotenoids and vitamins
1939
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka
for his work on sex hormones and for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes
1943
George de Hevesy
for his work on the use of isotopes as tracerss to study chemical processes
1944
Otto Hahn
for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
1945
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
for his research in agricultural and nutrition chemistry
1946
James Batcheller Sumner, John Howard Northrop, Wendell Meredith Stanley
for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized and for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form
1947
Sir Robert Robinson
for his investigations on plant products, especially the alkaloids
1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis
1949
William Francis Giauque
for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics
1950
Otto Paul Hermann Diels, Kurt Alder
for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis. Diels-Alder reaction.
1951
Edwin Mattison McMillan, Glenn Theodore Seaborg
for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements
1952
Archer John Porter Martin, Richard Laurence Millington Synge
for their invention of partition chromatography
1953
Hermann Staudinger
for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry
1954
Linus Carl Pauling
for his research into the nature of the chemical bond
1955
Vincent du Vigneaud
for his work on sulphur compounds, especially the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
1956
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions
1957
Lord Alexander R. Todd
for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes
1958
Frederick Sanger
for his work on the structure of proteins, especially insulin
1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis
1960
Willard Frank Libby
for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination
1961
Melvin Calvin
for his research on carbon dioxide assimilation in plants
1962
Max Ferdinand Perutz, John Cowdery Kendrew
for their studies of the structures of globular proteins
1963
Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta
for their discoveries relating to high polymers
1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin ;for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances 1965
Robert Burns Woodward
for his achievements in organic synthesis
1966
Robert Sanderson Mulliken
for his work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules
1967
Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, George Porter
for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
1968
Lars Onsager
for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name
1969
Derek H. R. Barton, Odd Hassel
for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation
1970
Luis F. Leloir
for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
1971
Gerhard Herzberg
for his contributions to electronic structure and the geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals
1972
Christian B. Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein
for his work on ribonuclease and for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the ribonuclease molecule
1973
Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson
for their work on the chemistry of organometallic compounds
1974
Paul J. Flory
for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules
1975
John Warcup Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog
for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions
1976
William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr
for his studies on the structure of Boranes
1977
Ilya Prigogine
for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics
1978
Peter D. Mitchell
for his formulation of the chemiosmotic theory
1979
Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig
for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into reagents in organic synthesis
1980
Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger
for his studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids and for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
1981
Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann
for their theories concerning the course of chemical reactions
1982
Aaron Klug
for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy
1983
Henry Taube
for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions
1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield
for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix
1985
Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle
for their achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures
1986
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi
for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes
1987
Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen
for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity
1988
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel
for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre
1989
Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech
for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA
1990
Elias James Corey
for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis
1991
Richard R. Ernst
for his contributions to the development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
1992
Rudolph A. Marcus
for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems
1993
Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith
for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry
1994
George A. Olah
for his contribution to carbocation chemistry
1995
Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland
for their work in atmospheric chemistry
1996
Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley
for their discovery of fullerenes
1997
Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou
for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate and for his discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+K+-ATPase
1998
Walter Kohn, John A. Pople
for his development of the density functional theory and for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
1999
Ahmed H. Zewail
for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
2000
Alan J Heeger, Alan G MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa
for their discovery and development of conductive polymers
2001
William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless
for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions and for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions
2002
Kurt Wüthrich, John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka
for their development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules
2003
Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon
for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes

External link


Nobel Prizes
Chemistry | Literature | Physiology or Medicine | Peace | Physics
Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel