The Saint Andrew reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
(provided by Fixed Reference: snapshots of Wikipedia from wikipedia.org)

Saint Andrew

Videos from a children's charity on sponsorship
Saint Andrew (Greek, Andreas, "manly"), the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter, was born at Bethsaida on the Lake of Galilee. He had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John 1:37-40) and was one of the first to follow Jesus. He lived at Capernaum (Mark 1:29). In the gospel story he is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus (Mark 13:3; John 6:8, 12:22); in Acts there is only a bare mention of him (1:13).

Eusebius quotes Origen as stating Andrew preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as the Volga. Hence he became a patron saint of Russia. Traditionally, he was the first bishop of Byzantium, a position which would later become Patriarch of Constantinople.

He is said to have suffered crucifixion at Patras (Patrae) in Achaea, on a cross of the form called Crux decussata (X-shaped cross) and commonly known as "St Andrew's cross". According to tradition his relics were removed from Patras to Constantinople, and thence to St Andrews (see below).

The apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius, Epiphanius and others, is generally attributed to Leucius the Gnostic. It was edited and published by Constantin von Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha (Leipzig, 1821). This book, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, was declared apocryphal by a decree of Pope Gelasius. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplementum II Codicis apocryphi, Paris, 1895).

Scottish legends

About the middle of the 8th century Andrew became the patron saint of Scotland. Concerning this there are several legends which state that the relics of Andrew were brought under supernatural guidance from Constantinople to the place where the modern St Andrews stands (Pictish, Muckross; Gaelic, Kilrymont).

The oldest stories (preserved in the Colbertine manuscripts in Paris, and the Harleian MSS. in the British Library) state that the relics were brought by one Regulus to the Pictish king Angus (or Ungus) Macfergus (c. 731-761). The only historical Regulus (Riagail or Rule, whose name is preserved by the tower of St Rule) was an Irish monk expelled from Ireland with St Columba; his date, however, is c. 573-600. There are good reasons for supposing that the relics were originally in the collection of Acca, bishop of Hexham, who took them into Pictland when he was driven from Hexham (c. 732), and founded a see, not, according to tradition, in Galloway, but on the site of St Andrews. The connexion with Regulus is, therefore, due in all probability to the desire to date the foundation of the church at St Andrews as early as possible.

Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, Russia, and Romania. The flag of Scotland (and consequently the Union Flag and the arms of Nova Scotia) feature a saltire in commemoration of the shape of St. Andrew's cross.

Feast days

His feast is observed on November 30 in both the Eastern and Western churches.


External links

This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.