The San Marino reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
(provided by Fixed Reference: snapshots of Wikipedia from wikipedia.org)

San Marino

Connect with a children's charity on your social network
For other uses, see (disambiguation).

The Republic of San Marino (official name) is one of the smallest nations in the world. It is completely surrounded by Italy, in southern Europe.

Repubblica di San Marino
Flag of San Marino
San Marino: Coat of Arms
(In Detail)
National motto: Libertas (Latin: "liberty")
Location of San Marino
Official language Italian
Capital San Marino
Captains Regent Paolo Bollini and
Marino Riccardi
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 190th
61 kmò
0%
Population
 - Total (2000)
 - Density
Ranked 189th
27,336
448/km²
Independence September 3, 301
Currency Euro (€, ISO 4217>EUR or 978)
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Inno Nazionale
Internet TLD .sm
Calling code 378 (0549 from Italy)

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Municipalities
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of San Marino

San Marino claims to be the world's oldest republic still in existence, being founded in 301 by a skilled builder referred to as Saint Marinus. The tiny nation was recognised by Napoleon's France in 1797, and by the other European nations at the 1815 Congress of Vienna.

Although a sovereign nation, it is strongly dependent on Italy, by which it has been completely surrounded since that country's unification, in the 19th century. In 1996 San Marino and Sweden ended a war status that has lasted between them since 1648 (under the Peace of Westphalia).

Politics

Main article: Politics of San Marino

The Consiglio Grande e General, or Grand and General Council, is elected by popular vote every five years. This parliament selects two of its members to serve as Regents for periods of six months. The two regents and the cabinet form the executive branch of the government.

The Council also elects the Consiglio dei XII (Council of Twelve), which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council.

Municipalities

San Marino is divided into 9 municipalities, known locally as castelli, that are also cities. See List of cities in San Marino.

Geography

Main article: Geography of San Marino

San Marino is an enclave of Italy, on the border between the regioni of Emilia-Romagna and Marche. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines mountain range, and has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, Monte Titano, is situated at 749 m above sea level. There are no waterbodies of any significance.

The climate is Mediterranean, with warm summers and mild winters.

Map of the Republic of San Marino

San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller.

Economy

Main article: Economy of San Marino

Although San Marino is not an official Euro member, it is allowed to use it as its currency by virtue of arrangments with the council of the European Union and was also granted the right to use their own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the Euro, the Sammarinese lire was coupled to and exchangeable with the Italian lire. The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the lire before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.

The tourist sector contributes over 50% of San Marino's GDP, with more than 3.3 million tourists visiting in 1997. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.

San Marino's postage stamps, which are only valid within the country, are mostly sold to philatelists and also form a source of income.

The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of San Marino

Being completely surrounded by Italy, there is no significant difference between the population of San Marino and Italy, and many Italians live in San Marino.

The language spoken is Italian, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.

Culture

Main article: Culture of San Marino

Miscellaneous topics

External links


Countries in Europe
Albania | Andorra | Austria | Azerbaijan | Belarus | Belgium | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Croatia | Czech Republic | Cyprus | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Italy | Latvia | Liechtenstein | Lithuania | Luxembourg | Republic of Macedonia | Malta | Moldova | Monaco | Netherlands | Norway | Poland | Portugal | Romania | Russia | San Marino | Serbia and Montenegro | Slovakia | Slovenia | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | Turkey | Ukraine | United Kingdom | Vatican City
Dependencies: Faroe Islands | Gibraltar | Guernsey | Isle of Man | Jan Mayen | Jersey | Svalbard