Sociologists may distinguish:
- primary socialization: the upbringing of a dependent infant, the initiation into a mother-tongue
- secondary socialization: training for specialist roles in society through education systems and social groups by building on the basic assumed primary socialization.
AnimalsFeral animals can be socialized with varying degrees of success.
For example, the cat returns readily to a feral state if it has not been socialized properly in its young life. Kittens learn to be feral from their mothers or through bad experiences. It will usually fear humans and people often unknowingly own one and think it merely "unfriendly."
These cats, if left to proliferate, often become "pests" in populated neighborhoods by decimating the bird population and digging up people's yards. They are used in agriculture to help keep rodent and snake populations down. Such cats are often referred to as "barn" cats.
Kittens under six months of age can be socialized by keeping them confined in a small room (ie. bathroom) and handling it for 3 or more hours each day. There are three primary methods for socialization, used individually or in combination. One may simply hold and pet the cat, so that it learns that such activities are not uncomfortable. One can also use food bribes. The final method is to distract the cat with toys while handling them. The cat may then be gradually introduced to larger and larger spaces, but may never again go outside without reverting back to its feral state. This process often takes three weeks to three months for a kitten.
Cats older than six months are very hard to socialize. It is often said that they cannot be socialized. This is not true, but the process takes two to four years of diligent food bribes and handling, and mostly on the cat's terms. Eventually the cat may be persuaded to be comforable with humans and the indoor environment.
Many animal shelters foster the kittens to be socialized or kill them outright. The feral adults are always killed or euthanized due to the large time commitment. Some shelters and vets will simply spay/neuter and vaccinate a feral cat and then return it to the wild.