The Space reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
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Space

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Table of contents
1 Physics
2 Astronomy
3 Mathematics
4 Psychology
5 Orthography
6 Computers
7 Music
8 Philosophy

Physics

The definition of space in physics is contentious. Various concepts used to try to define space have included:

In classical physics, space is a three-dimensional Euclidean space where any position can be described using three coordinatess. Relativistic physics examines spacetime rather than space; spacetime is modeled as a four-dimensional manifold.

Philosophical questions concerning space include: Is space absolute or purely relational? Does space have one correct geometry, or is the geometry of space just a convention? Historical Eminences who have taken sides in these debates include Isaac Newton (space is absolute), Gottfried Leibniz (space is relational), and Henri Poincaré (spatial geometry is a convention).

Two important thought-experiments connected with these questions are: Newton's bucket argument and Poincaré's sphere-world.

See also: Spherical coordinates, Cartesian coordinates, Philosophy of physics

Astronomy

Space is the relatively empty parts of the Universe, outside the atmospheress of planets. It is sometimes called "outer space" to distinguish it from airspace and terrestrial locations.

As Earth's atmosphere has no abrupt cut-off, but rather thins gradually with increasing altitude, there is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and space. The altitude of 100 kilometers or 62 miles established by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale is the most widely used definition as the boundary between atmosphere and space. In the United States, persons who travel above an altitude of 50 miles (80 kilometers) are designated as astronauts. 400,000 feet (75 miles or 120 kilometers) marks the boundary where atmospheric effects become noticeable during re-entry.

See also: astronomy, space science, space technology, space colonization, space exploration

Mathematics

In mathematics, a space is a set, usually with some additional structure.

For examples, see Euclidean space, vector space, normed vector space, affine space, projective space, Banach space, inner product space, Hilbert space, topological space, uniform space, metric space, probability space.

Psychology

The term inner space has sometimes been used to describe the contents of the human mind.

Orthography

In some orthographies, a space is a blank area that serves as punctuation to provide interword separation.

Computers

The memory space of a computer is often thought as a one dimensional array of memory cells.

The Space character (ASCII value 32) is used as the blank separating words (same as Orthographic space), and corresponds to the spacebar on the keyboard.

Music

Space is a French electronic music band created in 1977. It was headed by Didier Marouani (also known as Ecama).

Space is also a Liverpool-based pop/indie band, popular in the late 90's.

Philosophy

Immanuel Kant, in the Critique of Pure Reason, regarded space as an a priori notion that allows us (together with other a priori notions such as time) to comprehend sense experience.