The Swaziland reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
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Swaziland

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The Kingdom of Swaziland is a small country in southern Africa, embedded between South Africa in the west and Mozambique in the east.

Kingdom of Swaziland
125px
Image:Swazicoa.jpg
(In Detail)
National motto: Siyinqaba
(Swati: "We are the fortress")
image:LocationSwaziland.png
Official language English and Swati
Capital Mbabane
KingMswati III
Prime MinisterThemba Dlamini
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 153rd
17,363 km²
0.9%
Population
 - Total (2001)
 - Density
Ranked 151st
1,104,343
65/km²
IndependenceSeptember 6, 1968
Currency Lilangeni
Time zone UTC + 2
National anthem Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati
Internet TLD.SZ
Calling Code268

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Districts
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of Swaziland

Human remains and artifacts from more than 100,000 years ago have been found in Swaziland. Evidence of agriculture and iron use dates from about the 4th century CE, and people speaking languages ancestral to current Sotho and Nguni languages began settling no later than the 11th century CE. The ruling Dlamini lineage had chiefships in the region in the 18th century. An enlarge Swazi kingdom was established by Sobhuza I in the early 19th century. Soon thereafter the first whites started to settle in the area. In the 1890s the South African Republic in the Transvaal claimed sovereignty over Swaziland but never fully established power. After the South African War of 1899-1902, Swaziland became a British dependency. The country was eventually granted independence on September 6, 1968. Since then, Swaziland has seen a struggle between pro-democracy activists and the totalitarian monarchy.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Swaziland

The head of state is the king, which since 1986 has been King Mswati III. As the monarch, he does not only appoint the prime minister - the head of government - but also appoints a small number representatives for both chambers of the Libandla (parliament). The Senate consists of 30 members, while the House of Assembly has 65 seats, 55 of which are occupied by elected representatives (elections held every 5 years).

Districts of Swaziland

Districts

Main article: Districts of Swaziland

Swaziland is divided into four districts:

  1. Hhohho
  2. Lubombo
  3. Manzini
  4. Shishelweni

Geography

Main article:
Geography of Swaziland

Map of Swaziland

Swaziland offers a wide variety of landscapes, from the mountains along the Mozambican border to savannas in the east and rainforest in the northwest. Several rivers flow through the country, such as the Lusutfu River. With 50,000 inhabitants, the capital city of Mbabane is the largest town in the nation; others include Manzini, Lobamba and Siteki.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Swaziland

In this small, landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 80% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp remain important foreign exchange earners. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends more than two-thirds of its exports. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2002 because of drought, and more than one-third of the adult population was infected by HIV. 2004 Swaziland acknowledges for the first time that it has one of the highest Aids rates in the world, with almost 40% of adults infected with the HIV. Prime Minister Themba Dlamini has declared a humanitarian crisis due to the combined effect of drought and land degradation, increasing poverty and HIV/Aids. The United Nations special envoy on AIDS Stephen Lewis said “Swaziland stands alone with the world's highest rate of HIV infection after nearby Botswana made headway against the deadly pandemic”

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Swaziland

The majority of the population consists of Swazi, but there are also small numbers of Zulu, Europeans and Mozambican refugees. The official languages are Swati and English; the latter is also the official written language. The chief religion is Christianity, often in a form blended with several indigenous religions. There are also Jewish and Muslim communities.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Swaziland

Miscellaneous topics

External links


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