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Timeline of computing

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This article is a supplemental part of the
History of computing series.
 History of computing hardware (before 1960s)
 History of computing hardware (1960s-present)
 History of operating systems

This article presents a detailed timeline of events in the history of computing. For a narrative explaining the overall developments, see the related History of computing.

Computing timelines: 500 BC-1949, 1950-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-present

Resources:

See also:

Graphical Timeline

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  2. from:1964 till:1972 text:"3rd Generation" width:16"

  3. at:1975 text"Microsoft founded"
  4. at:1976 text"Apple Computer founded"
  5. at:1983 text"Borland founded"

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     bar:section1 from:start till:end text:"Predictions/(Concepts)"
    
     bar:section2 from:start till:end text:"First use/(Inventions)"
    
     bar:section3 from:start till:end text:"Hardware Systems/(Processors)"
    
     bar:section4 from:start till:end text:"Operating Systems"
    
     bar:section5 from:start till:end text:"Programming Languages"
    
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     at:1943 text:"'I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.' Thomas J. Watson, chairman of IBM"
    
     at:1949 text:"'Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons'"
    
     at:1950 text:"'"We'll have to think up bigger problems if we want to keep them busy.' Howard Aiken"
    
     at:1950 text:"(Turing Test)~_Alan Turing"
    
     shift:(5,5)
    
     at:1965 text:"Moore's law: processor complexity will double every year,~revised in 1975: complexity will double every two years. Gordon E. Moore"
    
    barset:skip
  7.  shift:(5,-5)
    
     at:1977 align:right shift:(-5,-5) text:"'There is no reason anyone would want a computer~in their home' (Ken Olson, Chairman DEC)"
    
     shift:(5,5)
    
     at:1981 text:"(Quantum Computer)~_Richard Feynmann

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     at:1940 text:"teletype"
    
     at:1947 text:"(transistor)"
    
     at:1948 text:"random access memory"
    
     at:1948 text:"magnetic drum"
    
     at:1949 text:"registers"
    
     at:1953 text:"magnetic core memory"
    
     at:1956 text:"hard disk"
    
     at:1957 text:"dot matrix printer"
    
     at:1958 text:"integrated circuit"
    
     at:1962 text:"spooling,~interrupts,~virtual memory~paging~(ATLAS)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1963 text:"mouse"
    
     at:1965 text:"time-sharing"
    
     at:1965 text:"fuzzy logic"
    
     at:1965 text:"packet switching"
    
     at:1969 text:"ARPANET precursor~of Internet"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1969 text:"RS-232"
    
     at:1970 text:"dynamic RAM"
    
     at:1971 text:"floppy disk"
    
     at:1971 text:"microprocessor~(4004)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1972 text:"game console~(PONG)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1973 text:"TCP/IP 1982 ??"
    
     at:1973 text:"ethernet"
    
     at:1975 text:"single-board~computer"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1976 text:"laser printer"
    
     at:1976 text:"supercomputer~(Cray)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1979 text:"compact disk"
    
     at:1981 text:"WIMP (GUI)"
    
     at:1981 text:"CGA video card"
    
     at:1982 text:"MIDI"
    
     at:1982 text:"RISC cpu"
    
     at:1982 text:"portable~PC"
    
     barset:skip
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1983 text:"math~coprocessor"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1983 text:"PC harddisk"
    
     at:1984 text:"GNU project"
    
     at:1984 text:"DNS (Domain~Name Server)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1984 text:"IDE interface"
    
     at:1985 text:"Expanded Memory"
    
     at:1985 text:"Postscript"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1985 text:"EGA video card"
    
     at:1985 text:"CD_ROM"
    
     at:1986 text:"SCSI interface"
    
     at:1987 text:"massive parallel~computing~(Connection Machine)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1987 text:"VGA video card"
    
     at:1987 text:"PC sound card (AD-LIB)"
    
     at:1988 text:"optical chip"
    
     at:1988 text:"EISA bus"
    
     at:1989 text:"ATA interface"
    
     at:1990 text:"SVGA video card,~VESA driver"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1991 text:"ISA bus"
    
     at:1992 text:"CD-I"
    
     at:1994 text:"DNA computing"

    major or well known operating systems selection based on
  8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_500_BC-1949

  9.  barset:hardware_systems

     at:1940 text:"Model I~Relay Calculator"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1941 text:"Atanasoff~Berry Computer"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1941 text:"Z3"
    
     at:1943 text:"Harvard Mark I"
    
     at:1943 text:"Relay Interpolator"
    
     at:1943 text:"Colossus"
    
     at:1946 text:"ENIAC"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1962 text:"ATLAS"
    
     at:1964 text:"IBM 360"
    
     at:1964 text:"DEC PDP-8"
    
     at:1965 text:"CDC 6600~1st supercomputer"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1971 text:"electronic~calculator~TI"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1971 text:"(4004)"
    
     at:1972 text:"scientific~calculator~HP"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1972 text:"(8008)"
    
     at:1972 text:"1st 32-bit~ supermini"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1974 text:"(8080)"
    
     at:1974 text:"(MC 6800)"
    
     at:1974 text:"Altair 8800~personal~computer"
    
     barset:skip
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1976 text:"(Z80)"
    
     at:1976 text:"(6502)"
    
     at:1976 text:"Cray-1"
    
     at:1977 text:"Apple II"
    
     at:1977 text:"TRS-80"
    
     at:1978 text:"(8086)"
    
     at:1979 text:"PET"
    
     at:1979 text:"(68000)"
    
     at:1980 text:"VIC-20"
    
     at:1980 text:"ZX80"
    
     at:1981 text:"8010~'Star'"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1981 text:"ZX81"
    
     at:1981 text:"IBM PC"
    
     at:1982 text:"BBC~Micro"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1982 text:"C64"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1982 text:"(80286)"
    
     at:1982 text:"Compaq~Portable"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1982 text:"ZX Spectrum"
    
     at:1983 text:"Lisa"
    
     at:1983 text:"IBM XT"
    
     at:1983 text:"IBM PC jr"
    
     at:1983 text:"Macintosh"
    
     at:1984 text:"LaserJet printer"
    
     at:1984 text:"IBM AT"
    
     at:1985 text:"Amiga 1000"
    
     at:1985 text:"Atari ST"
    
     at:1986 text:"Amstrad 1512"
    
     at:1987 text:"Acorn Archimedes"
    
     at:1987 text:"Connection Machine"
    
     at:1987 text:"IBM PS/2"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1989 text:"(80486)"
    
     at:1993 text:"(66 MHz Pentium)"
    
     at:1998 text:"iMac"
    
     at:1999 text:"PowerMac"
    
     at:2000 text:"(1 GHz Pentium)"
    
     at:2003 text:"PowerPC G5
    
     at:2003 text:"Athlon 64

    major or well known operating systems selection based on
  10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_systems_timeline

  11.  barset:operating_systems

     at:1965 text:"OS/360"
    
     at:1967 text:"CP/CMS"
    
     at:1969 text:"ACP"
    
     at:1969 text:"Unix"
    
     at:1972 text:"VM/CMS"
    
     at:1974 text:"MVS"
    
     at:1976 text:"CP/M"
    
     at:1978 text:"Apple DOS 3.1"
    
     at:1978 text:"VMS"
    
     at:1980 text:"OS-9"
    
     at:1981 text:"MS-DOS"
    
     at:1982 text:"SunOS"
    
     at:1983 text:"Lisa OS"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1984 text:"Macintosh OS"
    
     at:1985 text:"AmigaOS"
    
     at:1985 text:"Atari TOS"
    
     at:1985 text:"Windows 1.0"
    
     at:1986 text:"AIX"
    
     at:1986 text:"GS-OS"
    
     at:1986 text:"HP-UX"
    
     at:1987 text:"IRIX"
    
     at:1987 text:"Minix"
    
     at:1987 text:"OS/2"
    
     at:1987 text:"Windows 2.0"
    
     at:1988 text:"OS/400"
    
     at:1989 text:"NeXTSTEP"
    
     at:1989 text:"RISC OS"
    
     at:1989 text:"SCO Unix"
    
     at:1990 text:"BeOS"
    
     at:1990 text:"OSF/1"
    
     at:1991 text:"Linux"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1992 text:"Solaris"
    
     at:1992 text:"Windows 3.1"
    
     at:1993 text:"Windows NT 3.1"
    
     at:1994 text:"Red Hat Linux"
    
     at:1995 text:"OpenBSD"
    
     at:1995 text:"OS/390"
    
     at:1995 text:"Windows 95"
    
     at:1996 text:"Debian GNU/Linux"
    
     at:1997 text:"Mac OS 7.6"
    
     at:1998 text:"Windows 98"
    
     at:1999 text:"Mac OS 8"
    
     at:2000 text:"Mac OS 9"
    
     at:2000 text:"Windows ME"
    
     at:2000 text:"Windows 2000"
    
     at:2001 text:"Mac OS X"
    
     at:2001 text:"Windows XP"
    
     at:2001 text:"z/OS"
    
     at:2003 text:"Windows~Server~2003" shift:(5,1)

    major or well known programming languages & dev tools selection based on
  12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_programming_languages
  13. generally only first versions are listed

  14.  barset:sys_dev_software
    
     at:1945 text:"Plankalkül"
    
     at:1952 text:"A-0"
    
     at:1954 text:"Mark I"
    
     at:1954 text:"FORTRAN"
    
     at:1958 text:"Algol 58"
    
     at:1959 text:"LISP"
    
     at:1960 text:"COBOL"
    
     at:1962 text:"APL"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1962 text:"Simula"
    
     at:1964 text:"PL/I"
    
     at:1964 text:"BASIC"
    
     at:1968 text:"Logo"
    
     at:1971 text:"Pascal"
    
     at:1972 text:"Smalltalk"
    
     at:1972 text:"C"
    
     at:1972 text:"PROLOG"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1978 text:"VISICALC"
    
     at:1979 text:"REXX"
    
     at:1979 text:"DBASE-II"
    
     at:1983 text:"Ada"
    
     at:1983 text:"C++"
    
     barset:skip
    
     at:1983 text:"Turbo~Pascal"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1985 text:"PARADOX"
    
     at:1985 text:"PostScript"
    
     at:1986 text:"Eiffel"
    
     at:1987 text:"HyperTalk"
    
     at:1987 text:"SQL"
    
     at:1987 text:"Perl"
    
     at:1991 text:"Python"
    
     at:1991 text:"Visual Basic"
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1993 text:"AppleScript"
    
     at:1995 text:"Delphi"
    
     at:1995 text:"JavaScript"
    
     at:1995 text:"Java"
    
     at:1997 text:"PHP"
    
     at:2000 text:"D"
    
     at:2000 text:"C#"
    
     at:2001 text:"KYLIX"

     barset:applications
    
     at:1951 text:"electronic music"
    
     at:1960 text:"compiler compiler"
    
     at:1962 text:"computer game"
    
     at:1965 text:"bulletin board"
    
     at:1965 text:"email (1971 ?)"
    
     at:1965 text:"super computing"
    
     at:1968 text:"interactive computing~(mouse, windows, hypertext,~full screen word processing)"
    
     barset:skip
    
     barset:skip
    
     barset:break
    
     at:1969 text:"networking"
    
     at:1970 text:"flight data processor"
    
     at:1972 text:"arcade video game"
    
     at:1977 text:"spreadsheet"
    
     at:1979 text:"Usenet"
    
     at:1984 text:"WYSIWIG word processing"
    
     at:1989 text:"World Wide Web"

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