The Yo-yo reference article from the English Wikipedia on 24-Jul-2004
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Yo-yo

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The yo-yo is a toy consisting of two equally-sized discs of plastic, wood, or metal, connected with an axle, around which a string is wound. There is a slip knot at the free end of the string, and, on a properly strung yo-yo, an uncut loop around the axle end which allows it to spin freely, or "sleep" upon reaching the string's end.

It is played by tying the string's free end around the middle finger, grasping the yo-yo, and then throwing it with a smooth motion. As the axle spins within the loop, a gyroscopic effect occurs, permitting time to perform a number of movements. By flicking the wrist, the yo-yo can be made to return to the player's hand, with the cord again completely wound into the groove. Any movement, or combination of movements, which result in the return of the yo-yo to the player's hand in this fashion is considered a trick.

Yo-yoing is a popular pastime around the world. Although generally associated with children, it is not uncommon for people who gain a level of proficiency at the sport in youth to continue playing into adulthood.


		

Table of contents
1 History
2 The Modern Yo-yo
3 Related articles
4 External links

History

Contrary to popular myth, there is no evidence that the yo-yo is derived from, nor even existed in any form intended for use as, a weapon. As anyone who plays can assure you, that while the force generated by a yo-yo could indeed be rendered deadly with the addition of sharpened edges, the difficulty of safely retrieving it would render such a device somewhat impractical. This rumor likely originated in the Philippines, where the historical record shows that hunters in the 16th century used sharp rocks with strings attached to kill prey from trees. The modern yo-yo began to be developed there at around this time, which is probably the source of confusion.

The yo-yo is a truly ancient form of amusement, with as many names as cultures which have assimilated it. Archaeologically, it is the second oldest toy known (after dolls). Although it is thought to have originated in China, the first hard evidence of yo-yolike toys in the historical record appears around 500 B.C in ancient Greece. A vase depicting play, as well as a specimen, are on display in the National Museum of Athens.

The toy is likely to have spread throughout Asia and Europe via trade routes, and is known to have enjoyed periods of popularity in India, Scotland, England, and even Egypt. The emigrette gained particular notariety in the western world during the French revolution; It was seen as a welcome source of relief from stress, likely epidemic during that period of French history.

Jumping across the ocean, yo-yos would incubate for a time before exploding commercially in the New World to become an international phenomenon.

The Modern Yo-yo

Modern yo-yo in cross section
modern incarnation of the device that we all know was refined in the
Philippines. The name yo-yo is derived from Tagalog and translates to "come-come". The term was first published in a dictionary of Filipino words printed in 1860. Tradition has it that use of the folk toy dates back at least a number of centuries there. The principal distinction between the Filipino design and previous, more primitive "back-and-forth" models is in the way the yo-yo is strung. One continuous piece of string, double the desired length, is twisted around itself to produce a loop at one end (as shown at left) which is fitted around the axle. This seemingly minor modification allows for a far greater variety and sophistication of motion, thanks to increased stability and suspension of movement during free spin. It is, without a doubt, the most important development in the evolution of the yo-yo.

U.S. patent #59745Enlarge

U.S. patent #59745

first United States patent on the toy was issued to James L. Haven and Charles Hettrich in 1866 under the name whirligig, however, the yo-yo would remain in relative anonymity until 1928 when a Filipino American named Pedro Flores opened the Yo-Yo Manufacturing Company in Santa Barbara, California. The business started with a dozen handmade toys; by November of 1929, Flores was operating two additional factories in Los Angeles and Hollywood, which altogether employed 600 workers and produced 300,000 units daily. Shortly thereafter (ca. 1930), Donald F. Duncan recognized the potential of this new fad and purchased the Flores Yo-yo Corporation and all its assets, including the Flores name, which was transferred to the new company in 1932. He is reputed to have paid more than $250,000, a fortune by depression era standards. It turned out to be a sound investment, making many, many times this amount in the years to follow.

Duncan, although often miscredited with invention of the yo-yo, was in fact a prolific entrepreneur and inventor. He founded the Good Humor frozen treats franchise, and a parking meter company which dominates that industry to this day. Most notable among Duncan's invention credits is the concept of the 'premium incentive', a marketing tactic wherein one collects proofs of purchase (i.e. boxtops or UPC barcodes) and redeems them for rewards, such as small toys or discount coupons.

A chart of the yo-yo's commercial history would mimic the path of the toy itself, finding peaks and lows many times over the course of the 20th century. Declining sales after the second World War prompted Duncan to launch a comeback campaign for his Yo-Yo™ in 1962 with a series of Television advertisements. The media blitz met with unprecedented success, thanks in great part to the introduction of the Duncan Butterfly, which was effectively an inverse version of the classic Imperial design that made landing the yo-yo on its string (in tricks such as "trapeze") much more accessible to the beginner. This success would be short-lived, however, and in a landmark intellectual property case in 1965, a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the Royal Tops Company, determining that Yo-Yo had become a part of common speech and that Duncan no longer had exclusive rights to the term. As a result of the expenses incurred by this legal battle as well as other financial pressures, the Duncan family sold the company name and associated trademarks in 1968 to Flambeau Plastics, who had manufactured Duncan's plastic models since 1955. They continue to run the company today.

Related articles

External links