is a country
in South America
. Machu Picchu, the Andes mountains, and the source of the Amazon river are all found in Peru. The main language
, but other languages, including Quechua and Aymara are also spoken.
Peru is bordered to the north by Ecuador and Colombia, to the east by Brazil, and to the south by Chile and Bolivia.
Peru was ruled by the Inca civilization until the Spanish arrived in 1531. Peru was a colony of Spain until 1821.
Peru suffered a terrible guerrilla war in the 1980s. During the 1990s, it was ruled by President Alberto Fujimori. The current president is Alejandro Toledo.
Peru's most important exports (products that it sells to other countries) are fish, gold and other metals, oil, coffee, sugar, and cotton.