TaiwanRepublic of China because it makes up most of the land the Republic of China currently controls. But actually the republic also controls other smaller islands.
Geographically, Taiwan is an island off the coast of the mainland of China. Politically, when not referring to the Republic of China, Taiwan is a province that is made up of this island and the Pescadores islands nearby. The province of Taiwan does not include Taiwan's two largest cities, Taipei and Kaohsiung.
The People's Republic of China claims that Taiwan belongs to it, and does not think the Republic of China has a right to exist.
The largest cities on Taiwan are Taipei and Kaohsiung.
Most people in Taiwan (Taiwanese) are Han Chinese. There are some Taiwanese native peoples. There are three groups of Han Chinese in Taiwan: the Mainlanderss, the Southern Fujianese, and the Hakka.
See also: political status of Taiwan